Challenges for Cyber-Physical Systems: Security, Timing Analysis and Soft Error Protection
The power grid represents a distributed cyber-physical system that is essential to the every-day life. Larger-scale black-outs are known to have a severe economic and safety impact, as historical events have shown. The severity in impact of power outage on the life is increasing continuously as the power distribution grid becomes more standardized and more automated. Current standardization efforts include the forthcoming IEC 61850 protocol that will eventually replace existing DNP variants and other protocols. The 61850 standard redefines the interaction between substations that provide power to, e.g., quarters of a city and control centers that coordinate power distribution to balance supply and demand. This includes an increasing trend in substation automation, mainly to increase efficiency and reduce maintenance overhead.