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Decrease in hardware costs and increase in computer networking technologies have led to the exponential growth in the use of large-scale parallel and distributed computing systems. One of the biggest issues in such systems is the development of effective techniques/algorithms for the distribution of the processes/load of a parallel program on multiple hosts to achieve goals such as minimizing execution time, minimizing communication delays, maximizing resource utilization and maximizing throughput. Such imbalances in system load suggest that performance can be improved by either transferring jobs from the currently heavily loaded hosts to the lightly loaded ones or distributing load evenly/fairly among the hosts.
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