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Wireless Underground Sensor Networks (WUSNs) constitute one of the promising application areas of the recently developed wireless sensor networking techniques. The main difference between WUSNs and the terrestrial wireless sensor networks is the communication medium. The propagation characteristics of ElectroMagnetic (EM) waves in soil and the significant differences between propagation in air prevent a straightforward characterization of the underground wireless channel. To this end, in this paper, advanced channel models are derived to characterize the underground wireless channel and the foundational issues for efficient communication through soil are discussed.
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