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Flash memory has become the storage medium of choice in portable consumer electronic applications, and high performance Solid State Drives (SSDs) are also being introduced into mobile computing, enterprise storage, data warehousing, and data-intensive computing systems. On the other hand, flash memory technologies present major challenges in the areas of device reliability, endurance, and energy efficiency. In this paper, the error behavior of TLC flash is studied through an empirical database of errors which were induced by write, read, and erase operations. Based on this database, error characterization at the block and page level is given.
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