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This paper presents a recent profile of IP data traffic in GPRS/UMTS core networks. The analysis in this paper is based on Layer 3 and 4 headers of packets which the authors measured in two commercial GPRS/UMTS networks at the end of 2008. They characterize traffic generated with Windows and Symbian devices which are regarded as major operating systems for laptops and mobile handsets in their datasets, respectively. Firstly, they describe the traffic characteristics by device types from the viewpoints of individual flows. After that, they introduce a notion of flow group which has a better capability to represent device-level usage than individual flows.
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