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Wireless Network Co-cast (WNC) is a cooperative communication protocol that overcomes the issues of imperfect frequency and timing synchronization while achieving spatial diversity to substantially reduce transmit power over Direct Transmission (DTX). Due to additional processing power in receiving and retransmitting each other information, however, not all nodes and WNC networks result in energy efficiency. To ensure energy efficient WNC networks, a TDMA-based merge process based on coalition formation games is pro-posed to orderly form cooperative groups. A node is merged into a cooperative group if the merge leads to power saving without causing additional power burden to individual nodes.
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