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IEEE 802.22 Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) is an emerging cognitive radio-based system. One of the major challenges for WRANs is how to efficiently schedule both channel sensing and data transmission for multiple adjacent WRAN cells. This challenge is known as coexistence problem. In this paper, the authors propose four schemes that aim at reducing the coexistence-problem effect. These schemes are based on a well-known operation mode of IEEE 802.22, namely Dynamic Frequency Hopping (DFH). The first and second schemes are based on using omni-directional antennas at the Base Stations (BSs), whereas the BSs in the other two schemes use directional antennas.
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