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This paper provides a comprehensive survey of cognitive radio technology, focusing on its application to dynamic spectrum access, especially from the perspective of realizing consumer-oriented CR networks. They first overview the state of the art in CR technology and identify its key functions across the protocol stack, such as spectrum sensing, resource allocation, CR MAC protocol, spectrum-aware opportunistic routing, CR transport protocol, QoS awareness, spectrum trading, and security. The authors also review the various schemes proposed for each of these functions and discuss the suitability, advantages, and limitations of their usage in the future CR market.
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