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Cooperative relay enables general multi-hop Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN) over Cognitive Radios (CR) and nodes of Primary System (PS). However, successful CR networking such as routing relies on the knowledge of radio resource availability associated with location, which is a challenge of traditional spectrum sensing. The authors introduce the concept of spectrum map encompassing spectrum and location information to deterministically assist multi-hop routing in highly dynamic environment, while common routing of CRN paying attention to statistical nature of opportunistic links.
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