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Arithmetic coding was introduced by Rissanen in 1976. Arithmetic coding is a very efficient entropy coding technique. It is optimal in theory and nearly optimal in practice, in that it encodes arbitrary data with minimal average code length. It works with any sample space so it can be used for the coding of text in arbitrary character sets as well as binary files. Arithmetic coding method is based on the fact that the cumulative probability of a symbol sequence corresponds to a unique subinterval of the initial interval [0, 1]. In this method, when encoding a symbol, it first computes new interval [low, high] based on cumulative probability segment of the symbol.
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