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Middleware-based database replication protocols are more portable and flexible than kernel-based protocols, but have coarser-grain information about transaction access data, resulting in reduced concurrency and increased aborts. This paper proposes conflict-aware load-balancing techniques to increase the concurrency and reduce the abort rate of middleware-based replication protocols. Experimental evaluation using a prototype of the authors' system running the TPCC benchmark showed that aborts can be reduced with no penalty in response time. Database replication protocols can be classified as kernelor middleware-based, according to whether changes in the database engine are required or not. Kernel-based protocols take advantage of internal components of the database to increase performance in terms of throughput, scalability, and response time.
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