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In 4G wireless networks, when a Mobile Host (MH) with multiple wireless interfaces changes its location or needs a network service, the MH will require a switch between different wireless networks (vertical handoff). Proposed congestion-aware proactive vertical handoff scheme uses coalition game. Its main objective is to decide source and target networks for handoff at minimum congestion in 4G wireless networks. The authors' mechanism is based on the coalition game formulation. It aims at maximizing the utilization of the resources available and meeting QoS requirement of users as much as possible by initiating vertical handoff. This will reduce congestion level. The performance of proposed scheme is evaluated through numerical analysis.
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