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Voltage-Frequency Scaling (VFS) trades a linear processor slowdown for a potentially quadratic reduction in energy consumption. Complex dependencies may exist between different tasks of an application. The impact of VFS on the end-to-end application performance is difficult to predict, especially when these tasks are mapped on multiple processors that are scaled independently. This is a problem for Real-Time (RT) applications that require guaranteed end-to-end performance. In this paper, the authors first classify the slack existing in RT applications consisting of multiple dependent tasks mapped on multiple processors independently using VFS, resulting in static, work, and share slack.
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