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One approach to prolong the lifetime of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is to deploy some relay nodes to communicate with the sensor nodes, other relay nodes, and the base stations. The relay node placement problem for wireless sensor networks is concerned with placing a minimum number of relay nodes into a wireless sensor network to meet certain connectivity or survivability requirements. Previous studies have concentrated on the unconstrained version of the problem in the sense that relay nodes can be placed anywhere. In practice, there may be some physical constraints on the placement of relay nodes. To address this issue, the authors study constrained versions of the relay node placement problem, where relay nodes can only be placed at a set of candidate locations.
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