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Intra-session network coding is inherently vulnerable to pollution attacks. In this paper, first, the authors introduce a novel homomorphic MAC scheme called SpaceMac, which allows an intermediate node to verify whether received packets belong to a specific subspace, even if the subspace is expanding over time. Then, they use SpaceMac as a building block to design a cooperative scheme that provides complete defense against pollution attacks: it can detect polluted packets early at intermediate nodes, and it can identify the exact location of all, even colluding, attackers, thus making it possible to eliminate them.
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