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The dynamic nature of wireless communication and the stringent energy constraints are major challenges for the design of low-power wireless sensor network applications. The link quality of a wireless link is known for its great variability, dependent on the distance between nodes, the antenna's radiation characteristic, multipath, diffraction, scattering and many more. Especially for indoor and urban deployments, there are numerous factors impacting the wireless channel. In an extensive experimental study contained in the first part of this paper, the authors show the magnitude of this problem for current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and that based on the overall connectivity graph of a typical multi-hop WSN, a large portion of the links actually exhibit very poor characteristics.
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