Date Added: Sep 2011
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) were often used to collect sensitive data and the entire network was particularly vulnerable to various threats at different layers of the protocol stack. With this in mind, there was need to improve security solutions that were inevitable and advantageous to the successful deployment of the wireless sensor networks. The vast research conducted to provide security solutions against various attacks in the WSNs so far was based on the layered approach. In this paper, the authors emphasized that the layered approaches have noticeable shortcomings such as the redundancy and/or inflexibility of the security solutions, which made the layers security solutions often inefficient and inadequate.