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Computer communication has been going through major changes throughout the last decades. While wireless technologies have been widely adopted, various domains and implementations like Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs), wireless mesh networks have emerged. Since TCP/IP was a protocol designed for wired networks, wireless transmission poses unique challenges to the well-defined and rigid protocol stack. The well-known layers of the OSI model or its practical counterpart TCP/IP model were too strict in some cases to provide with all the services necessitated by these new domains. These issues make way to cross-layer design where the traditional boundaries among layers are violated in different ways to achieve performance gain.
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