Date Added: Jan 2011
In this paper, the authors propose a detailed energy survey of the physical, data link, and network layer by analytical techniques. They also show the impact of regular sleep periods on node energy consumption and present a comparison analysis of single-hop vs. multi-hop communications in the energy realm. A detailed energy expenditure analysis of not only the physical layer but also the link and network layer provides a basis for developing new energy efficient wireless sensor networks. Regular, coordinated sleeping extends the lifetime of sensor nodes, but systems can only benefit from sleeping in terms of transmitted packets if the data arrival rate to the system is low.