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The authors consider ciphertext-only attack on symmetric block ciphers based on the Feistel network with secret S-boxes installed as an additional parameter, like in Soviet GOST 28147-89. In case when S-boxes are generated by authorized agency and cannot be verified by end-user of the cipher (e.g., in case of special equipment for encryption), application of non-bijective S-boxes allows significantly decrease deciphering complexity for authorized agency preserving high-level strength for other cryptanalysts. They show that it is necessary to have non-bijective S-boxes which outputs form non-trivial subgroup and give an example for deciphering complexity with known and secret non-bijective S-boxes for GOST.
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