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Although currently data centers are cooled by air, initially mainframes were successfully water cooled in the 60's. However, the practicalities of having to install a water-cooled system, that is, the scale, capital costs, and risks involved, led to air cooled solutions. Continuous growth and development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) together with the trend of higher hardware power densities has resulted in an increase in data center power and cooling requirements. Traditional air cooled solutions are not flexible enough for these projected high densities. Real estate pressures can mean this results in a demand for high-density power and cooling solutions (ASHRAE 2004). Moore's law is vastly referenced to predict load density growth doubling every 18 months.
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