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Hiding secret messages in DNA sequences has become a popular research in recent years. In this paper, the authors propose an improved algorithm named the Table Lookup Substitution Method (TLSM) to enhance the performance of an existing data hiding method called the substitution method. Moreover, a general form of the TLSM is discussed, which includes the original method as a special case. After that, a Base-t TLSM and an Extended TLSM (ETLSM) are proposed to further enhance the TLSM. The Base-t TLSM encodes the secret message with radix t to fully utilize the substitution table. The ETLSM takes additional letters into account to increase the number of selectable substitution tables, which can improve the security of the TLSM remarkably.
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