Defining CPS Challenges in a Sustainable Electricity Grid
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is characterized as complex distributed systems exhibiting substantial uncertainty due to interactions with the physical world. Today's electric grids are often described as CPS because a portfolio of distributed supplies must be dispatched in real-time to match uncontrolled, uncertain demand while adhering to constraints imposed by the intervening transmission and distribution network. With the increased control complexity required by deep penetration of fluctuating renewable supplies, the grid becomes more profoundly a CPS and needs to be addressed as a system. In this evolving CPS, a large fraction of supply is under-actuated, a substantial portion of demand needs to become dispatchable, interactions among distributed elements are no longer unidirectional, and operating requirements of elements are more dynamic.