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The three traditional failure classes are system, media, and transaction failures. Sometimes, however, modern storage exhibits failures that differ from all of those. In order to capture and describe such cases, single-page failures are introduced as a fourth failure class. This class encompasses all failures to read a data page correctly and with plausible contents despite all correction attempts in lower system levels. Efficient recovery seems to require a new data structure called the page recovery index. Its transactional maintenance can be accomplished writing the same number of log records as today's efficient implementations of logging and recovery. Detection and recovery of a single-page failure can be sufficiently fast that the affected data access is merely delayed, without the need to abort the transaction.
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