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A power grid has four segments: generation, transmission, distribution and demand. Until now, utilities have been focusing on streamlining their generation, transmission and distribution operations for energy efficiency. While loads have traditionally been a passive part of a grid, with rapid advances in ICT, demand-side technologies now play an increasingly important role in the energy efficiency of power grids. This paper starts by introducing the key concepts of demand-side management and demand-side load management. Classical demand-side management defines six load shape objectives, of which "Peak clipping" and "Load shifting" are most widely applicable and most relevant to energy efficiency.
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