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Photonic Crystals (PCs) may be considered as a new class of optical materials. These materials are based on the interaction between an optical field and materials exhibiting periodicity on the scale of wave length. The main feature of photonic crystals is that they can prohibit the propagation of electromagnetic waves within a certain frequency range called Photonic Band Gap (PBG). The materials exhibiting PBG have many potential applications in optoelectronics and optical communication. For the optical range within which the main application is expected, most of the experimental effort has been concentrated on two dimensional and three dimensional photonic crystals.
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