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Clonal Selection Algorithms (CSAs) is a special class of Immune Algorithms (IA), inspired by the clonal selection principle of the human immune system. To improve the algorithm's ability to perform better, this CSA has been modified by implementing two new concepts called fixed mutation factor and ladder mutation factor. Fixed mutation factor maintains a constant factor throughout the process, where as ladder mutation factor changes adaptively based on the affinity of antibodies. This paper compared the conventional CLONALG, with the two proposed approaches and tested on several standard benchmark functions.
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