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Modern high performance computing systems are being increasingly deployed in a hierarchical fashion with multi-core computing platforms forming the base of the hierarchy. These systems are usually comprised of multiple racks, with each rack consisting of a finite number of chassis, and each chassis having multiple compute nodes or blades, based on multi-core architectures. The networks are also hierarchical with multiple levels of switches. Message exchange operations between processes that belong to different racks involve multiple hops across different switches and this directly affects the performance of collective operations.
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