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There have been proposed many geographic multicasting protocols for wireless ad hoc sensor networks. Most of these protocols tend to exploit a Source-initiated Geographic Multicasting (SGM) approach which consists of three phases: first, a source collects the position information of all destination nodes; second, the source constructs a multicast tree through the position information; third, the source forwards data down the multicast tree. However, if a multicast group contains many mobile destinations, the SGM approach may cause a great deal of delivery of position registration and update messages to the source, thus lead to significant energy consumption of the sensor nodes in the vicinity of the source.
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