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The cost of the tag is one of the important factors to their proliferation. Designing a secure and efficient light-weight authentication protocol is imperative to resist against all feasible attacks. In general, the low-cost tag is difficult to implement the traditional public key cryptosystem since the tag's limited storage capacity (25-3K memory and 5-10K logic gates). Over the past years, several streams of research have emerged to resolve the RFID security and authentication issues. Most of the previous light-weight RFID authentication protocols based on random number generator, Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) or bitwise operations (e.g., XOR, AND and OR) are vulnerable to both passive and active attacks.
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