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In recent years Internet miscreants have been leveraging the DNS to build malicious network infrastructures for malware command and control. In this paper, the authors propose a novel detection system called Kopis for detecting malware-related domain names. Kopis passively monitors DNS traffic at the upper levels of the DNS hierarchy, and is able to accurately detect malware domains by analyzing global DNS query resolution patterns. Compared to previous DNS reputation systems such as Notos and Exposure, which rely on monitoring traffic from local recursive DNS servers, Kopis offers a new vantage point and introduces new traffic features specifically chosen to leverage the global visibility obtained by monitoring network traffic at the upper DNS hierarchy.
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