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Delay-tolerant networks are especially useful in providing mission-critical services including emergency scenarios and battlefield applications. However, DTNs are vulnerable to wormhole attacks, in which a malicious node records the packets at one location and tunnels them to another colluding node, which relays them locally into the network. Wormhole attacks are a severe threat to normal network operation in DTNs. In this paper, the authors describe various methods that have been developed to detect wormhole attacks. However, most of them cannot work efficiently in DTNs. To detect the presence of a wormhole attack, they propose a detection mechanism that exploits the existence of a forbidden topology in the network.
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