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This paper examines the factors, which determine R&D outsourcing behaviour at Japanese firms, from the viewpoints of transaction cost and strategic management, since the latter half of the 1990s. This study uses empirical analysis, which involves the application of large-sample data. The principal findings of this paper are listed below. Firms that belong to a wider corporate group are more active in executing R&D outsourcing activities. Diversification strategies such as the expansion of product and sales markets have a positive effect on the R&D outsourcing behaviour of firms. Moreover, while quantitative R&D resources have positive influences on R&D outsourcing, qualitative indices have no effect.
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