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This paper presents and evaluates a low-overhead approach for achieving high-availability in distributed event-processing middleware systems consisting of networks of stateful software components that communicate by either one-way (Send) or two-way (Call) messages. The approach is based on transparently augmenting each component to produce a deterministic component whose state can be recovered by checkpoint and replay. Determinism is achieved by augmenting messages with virtual times, and by scheduling message handling in virtual time order. Scheduling delays are reduced by computing virtual times with estimators: deterministic functions that approximate the expected real times of arrival.
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