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A Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) system for trans-horizon radio communications within the High-Frequency (HF) band (3 to 30 MHz) is presented. The diversity of transmitted polarizations is proposed as an alternative to spatial diversity in order to limit the aperture of antenna arrays at both ends of the radio link. In a theoretical step providing the estimation of capacity gain for different MIMO architectures, a 2 ? 2 MIMO solution transmitting two complementary circular polarizations is identified as a balanced trade-off between performance increase and complexity. The design of the corresponding system is described with a focus on antenna arrays and the kind of signal processing that should be implemented. This novel communication system has been tested on a 280-km-long radio link.
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