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Errors due to noise at the base station can be minimized using retransmission & co-operation. To reduce the amount of power loss involved in retransmission the authors make use of co-operative techniques. In such networks, solution is the cross layer design of link layer protocol, which must reliably deliver sensor nodes data at minimum energy cost. With this objective in mind they shall be using the technique of 'Co-operative protocol' for physical layer & that of 'Reverse error correction' for data link layer or media access control is used to design cross layer protocol modules. They make use of differential coding techniques which employ use of additional bits along with data bits called parity bits depending on channel state information of the available channel.
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