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Wireless Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs/SANETs) are formed with mobile/static wireless nodes and have different set of problems as compared to their wired counterparts. IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol was initially designed for infrastructure based networks and is therefore not able to address the issues linked with wireless ad-hoc networks especially Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs). Legacy MAC protocols were based on omni-directional transmission. In the recent past, many researchers have shown interest in the development of directional antenna based MAC protocols. Although directional antenna brings in advantages of higher transmission range/gain, spatial reuse and so on but equally suffers from typical problems of hidden/exposed terminals, head-of-line blocking and deafness etc.
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