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The authors have reviewed plausible candidates for directional antennas that can be used by WSN nodes. Due to its simplicity and low cost, the proposed SPIDA instance of the ESPE antenna structure appears to be an attractive candidate. The special structure of SPIDA produces a beam pattern well suited to efficient signal processing. However, the quality of measurements (i.e. RMS error in angular measurements) is also an important consideration, which is hard to predict theoretically. In order to investigate this, antennas will have to be tested in their intended environments.
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