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Prolonged network lifetime, scalability, and load balancing are important requirements for many ad-hoc sensor network applications. To satisfy these requirements, several solutions have been proposed that exploit the tradeoffs among energy, accuracy, and latency. Many solutions also use hierarchical (tiered) architectures, where sensor nodes are clustered according to application-specific parameters. Several protocols and applications can exploit such clustering techniques to increase scalability and reduce delays. Examples include routing protocols, and applications requiring efficient data aggregation (e.g., computing the maximum detected radiation around an object).
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