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The recent explosive growth of wireless networks, with their ever-growing demand for radio spectrum, has exacerbated the problem of spectrum scarcity. Such scarcity, however, is not an outcome of exhausted physical spectrum, but a result of inefficient channel utilization due to existing policies that channels are licensed to their authorized holders (typically those who win government auctions of spectrum), and unlicensed access is not allowed even if the channel is not used. In order to utilize such idle channels and to improve their utilization, it is critical to design sufficient incentives that encourage primary license holders to allow other spectrum-deficient users to access these channels.
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