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Synchronization of relay nodes is an important and critical issue in exploiting cooperative diversity in wireless networks. In this paper, two asynchronous cooperative diversity schemes are proposed, namely, distributed delay diversity and asynchronous space-time coded cooperative diversity schemes. In terms of the overall Diversity-Multiplexing (DM) tradeoff of a relay channel, the authors show that independent coding based distributed delay diversity and asynchronous space-time coded cooperative diversity schemes achieve the same performance as the synchronous space-time coded approach which requires accurate symbol-level timing synchronization to ensure signals arriving at the destination from different relay nodes are perfectly synchronized.
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