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As transistor dimensions continue to scale deep into the nanometer regime, silicon reliability is becoming a chief concern. At the same time, transistor counts are scaling up, enabling the design of highly integrated chips with many cores and a complex interconnect fabric, often a Network on Chip (NoC). Particularly problematic is the case when the accumulation of permanent hardware faults leads to disconnected cores in the system. In order to maintain correct system operation, it is necessary to salvage the data from these isolated nodes. In this paper, the authors introduce a recovery mechanism targeting precisely this issue: DRAIN (Distributed Recovery Architecture for Inaccessible Nodes) provides system-level recovery from permanent failures.
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