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A synchronization error is unavoidable in mobile wireless multi-hop networks, especially in sparse networks, due to the lack of effective synchronization algorithms. Fortunately, some level of clock synchronization is possible among nodes. In this paper, the authors propose a Distributed Semi-Asynchronous sleep scheduling protocol (DSA) considering loosely synchronized clocks in sparse mobile wireless networks. The sleep schedules are constructed to guarantee contacts among distributed nodes having synchronization errors. Also, the protocol can be optimized using the probability distribution of the synchronization error to maximize the energy efficiency.
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