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The authors propose an adaptive model for the study of cellular networks called the fluid model, useful to each specific network environment characterized by the radio propagation (distance path-loss and shadowing) and by the network configuration. The key idea of the fluid model is to consider the discrete Base Stations (BSs) entities as a continuum of transmitters which are spatially distributed in the network. This allows the authors to obtain simple analytical expressions of the main characteristics of the network. They focus on the downlink other-cell interference factor, f, which is defined here as the ratio of outer cell received power to the inner cell received power. Taking into account the shadowing, f is expressed as a lognormal random variable.
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