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Underwater communications pose different problems to networking protocol design than terrestrial radio networks. The main discrepancies between the two scenarios lie in the very low propagation speed, five orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of radio waves in the air, and in the frequency-dependent channel attenuation and noise power spectral density, which cause the average power received over any link to show a dependence on frequency as well. It should be noted that these two specific problems are quite well known in the networking community. Specifically, long propagation delays are typical of very-long range radio communications, especially involving satellite links or, e.g., deep space probe transmissions.
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