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Due to the forensic value of the audit logs, it is vital to provide forward-secure integrity and append-only properties in a logging system to prevent attackers who have gained control of the system from modifying or selectively deleting log entries generated before they took control. Existing forward-secure logging solutions are either based on symmetric cryptography or Public Key Cryptography (PKC). However, symmetric schemes are not publicly verifiable and cannot address applications that require public auditing (e.g., secure electronic voting, public financial auditing), besides being vulnerable to certain attacks and dependent on continuous trusted server support. PKC-based schemes are costly for both loggers and verifiers, and thus are impractical for task-intensive and/or resource-constrained environments.
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