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Recently, many applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been discussed. Navigation with WSNs is among the most heated debated ones. Previous navigation algorithms attempt to find safe and efficient escape paths for individuals under various environmental dynamics but ignore possible congestion caused by the individuals rushing for the exits. Moreover, most previous works have overlooked the fact that the emergency rescue force can take actions strategically in order to save people out of danger. The authors propose an efficient Emergency Rescue Navigation strategy (ERN) by treating WSNs as navigation infrastructure. Their approach takes both pedestrian congestion and rescue force flexibility into account. A directed graph is used to model the emergency regions.
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