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The great end-to-end delays are the major factor to influence the visual quality of real-time video across the Internet using TCP as transport layer protocol. In this paper, the authors present a video frame schedule scheme for rate adaptive real-time video transmission over TCP. The scheme schedules video frames between the application layer sender-buffer, the TCP sender-buffer and TCP receiver-buffer and can regulate automatically the video frame rate and play out buffer delays according to the network congestion level. The scheme requires only an extra buffer of application layer and can significantly cut down the end-to-end delays of real-time video without any modification to the network infrastructure or TCP protocol stack.
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