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Wireless reprogramming of sensor nodes is an essential requirement for long-lived networks since software functionality needs to be changed over time. During reprogramming, the number of radio transmissions should be minimized, since reprogramming time and energy depend chiefly on the number of radio transmissions. In this paper, the authors present a multi-hop incremental reprogramming protocol called Zephyr that transfers the delta between old and new software versions, and let the sensor nodes rebuild the new software using the received delta and the old software. Zephyr reduces the delta size by using application-level modifications to mitigate the effects of function shifts.
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