Date Added: Feb 2010
UnderWater Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks in the following aspects: low bandwidth, high latency, node mobility, high error probability, and 3-dimensional space. These new features bring many challenges to the network protocol design of UWSNs. In this paper, the authors tackle one fundamental problem in UWSNs: robust, scalable, and energy efficient routing. They propose Vector-Based Forwarding (VBF), a geographic routing protocol. In VBF, the forwarding path is guided by a vector from the source to the target, no state information is required on the sensor nodes, and only a small fraction of the nodes is involved in routing.